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The book counted the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) as the first Reich and the German Empire (1871–1918) as the second.Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (including violence from left- and right-wing paramilitaries), contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, and a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties.Einsatzgruppen paramilitary death squads inside the occupied territories conducted mass killings of millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state.Many others were imprisoned, worked to death, or murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was initially successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the United States into the war meant the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border.The government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others.The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war.
The victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer (leader) of Germany.All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law.The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour.In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich".